International Labour Review 2018/02

  • Child labour measurement: Whom should we ask? (169)
    Funding decisions to support vulnerable children are tied to child labour statistics, hence the importance of an accurate measurement. The author analyses whether the type of respondent plays an important role in esplaining variations in child labour statistics. Using data from two sites in Tanzania, the analysis shows that “whom we ask” matters considerably when estimating the prevalence of child labour. The results suggest that prevalence increases by approximately 35 to 65 per cent when using child self-reports rather than proxy reports. This bias affects 14 to 31 per cent of the sample, depending on the indicator. Discrepancies decrease as the child ages and increase if proxy attitudes demonstrate opposition to child labour.
  • Remittances and labour market outcomes: Evidence from Mexico (193)
    The effects of remittances on labour market outcomes have been studied by many researchers, primarily using micro-level data. While a few studies have also used macro-level data, they suffer from endogeneity bias due to the inclusion of remittances in their estimations. The present study attempts to fill the gap in the literature by using a set of panel data of Mexican states and by addressing the endogeneity bias with a system GMM (generalized method of moments) estimator. The main conclusions are that remittances increase labour force participation rates and reduce median hours worked, critical employment and unemployment duration.
  • Are labour inspections effective when labour regulations vary according to the size of the firm? Evidence from Peru (213)
    This article analyses the impact of enforcement of four labour standards (pension system enrolment, minimum wage, maximum weekly working hours and written employment contract) on compliance in Peru, where labour regulations and penalties vary according to firm size. The author uses household survey data to analyse a factor not previously studied – adjustment by firms through downsizing to benefit from lower fines and less stringent regulations. The empirical findings indicate that enforcement efforts have little effect on either the degree of compliance or the size of firms.
  • The Decent Work Questionnaire (DWQ): Development and validation in two samples of knowledge workers (243)
    This research develops a Decent Work Questionnaire (DWQ) to measure workers’ perceptions of decent work. Current measurements of decent work are almost completely lacking at the individual worker level of analysis, and this study contributes to filling the gap. The authors designed their DWQ based on the substantive elements used by the ILO in its Decent Work Agenda with the final 31-item version of the DWQ yielding seven factors related to decent work. Showing good reliability coefficient values and good convergent and discriminant validity, this DWQ could open up new avenues for empirical studies on the concept of decent work.
  • Shifting the Beveridge curve: What affects labour market matching? (267)
    This article explores short-run determinants of the matching between labour demand and supply by identifying shifts in the Beveridge curves for 12 OECD countries between 2000Q1 and 2013Q4. Using three complementary methodologies (visual examination, cointegration techniques and non-linear estimations), we find that labour force growth and employment protection legislation reduce the likelihood of outward shifts, and the higher the share of employees with intermediate levels of education and the long-term unemployment, the more difficult the matching process. Active labour market policies (such as incentives for start-ups or job-sharing programmes) could facilitate matching, while passive policies (unemployment benefits or labour taxation) make matching significantly more difficult.
  • Employment conditions in the export industry of northern Morocco. Legal framework and situation on the ground (307)
    companies in northern Morocco that export manufactured goods and services run on a production system characterized by high pressure, flexible use of labour, strict supervision and the challenging of certain labour rights. This article studies the conditions of work at these enterprises on the basis of the theorethical model of the “localized global economy”, drawing distinctions based on types of enterprise, industry and occupational categories. The results show how changes to the labour law in 2004, which adopted the standards contained in international conventions, have given more power to multinational enterprises.