Medycyna Pracy (Occupational Medicine) 2022/01

  • Workload, job satisfaction and occupational stress in Polish midwives before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
    The aim of this study was to describe, explain, and compare the correlations between workload, job satisfaction, and occupational stress levels in Polish midwives working before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Differential impact of COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity in younger and older adolescents – prospective study
    Insufficient physical activity levels (PAL) during adolescence is a major public health concern, which is even more pronounced during the COVID-19 pandemic due to restricting movement opportunities. This study aimed to identify PAL changes and examine the age-specific determinants of PAL in younger and older adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown.
  • Job insecurity and emotional disturbance of Polish employees during pandemic COVID-19
    The pandemic, as an event that is new and dangerous to the health and life of the population, has put employees at risk of losing their job and experiencing deteriorating working and employment conditions. In this situation, authors were particularly concerned with the extent to which job insecurity (both quantitative and qualitative) contributed to the deterioration of workers’ well-being.
  • Analysis of interest in vaccination against COVID-19 and other pro-health initiatives at the workplace among employees in Poland
    The COVID-19 pandemic re-raised the subject of vaccines and their importance for public health. Given the number of employees, one of the key environments in which vaccination should be promoted is the workplace.
  • The obligation to provide medical assistance and the employee's right to refrain from performing work in conditions that do not comply with occupational safety and health regulations and the lack of personal protective equipment - dilemmas during the COVID-19 pandemic
    With the emergence of an extraordinary situation in Poland related to the state of the COVID-19 pandemic, the question of whether medical personnel has the right to refrain from working in conditions that violate occupational health and safety and in the absence of personal protective equipment, has returned to the public debate. Chief Labor Inspector clearly indicated that refraining from work does not apply to an employee whose duty is to save human life or property. The purpose of this article was to analyze the premises of Art. 210 of the Labor Code in the context of the provisions of medical law and the principles of professional ethics, as well as providing the doctrine with an incentive to research on a complex problematic complex.
  • The infection fatality rate (IFR) in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Upper Silesian Agglomeration in 2020
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, a wide spectrum of studies was initiated on a global scale, including studies aimed at estimating the infection fatality rate (IFR). Determining the IFR requires the knowledge of the number of deaths in a given population and time, as well as the number of infected people, usually determined on the basis of serological test results (anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the case of COVID-19). The aim of the study was to estimate the IFR in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 in the Silesian Agglomeration (AG).
  • The impact of remote work forced by the COVID-19 pandemic on back pain in the professional group of teachers
    Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), many people in the public sector have switched to remote work, including the professional group of teachers. This could have contributed to the occurrence of back pain in this group. The aim of the study was to assess back pain in a group of teachers before and after the introduction of distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The spectrum of non-characteristic oral manifestations in COVID-19 – a scoping brief commentary
    Virus-induced oral abnormalities, occurring especially in severe COVID-19 cases of hospitalized patients, have various characteristics and clinical features being, either directly or indirectly, related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Deregulation of the immune system as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to the impairment of the normal defense pathway in the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. This scoping mini-review is aimed to critically appraise the existing evidence concerning the potential link between COVID-19 condition and abnormal manifestations within oral cavity, affecting oral mucosa, salivary glands and sensory elements. COVID-induced oral mucosa manifestations, with various clinical aspects, are likely to occur as coinfections and secondary symptoms, as immune system imbalance is per se a causative factor of secondary manifestations. Oral mucosal lesions related to SARS-CoV-2 infection do not seem to demonstrate gender predilection, with the average reported age around 50 years of age. They include mainly white and erythematous plaques, ulcers, blisters, petechiae. The affected intraoral areas were mainly: tongue, palate, lips, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. The “aggressive” therapies utilized to treat COVID-19, including drug interactions may aggravate or initiate OMLs pathologies. Neglected oral hygiene or partial or complete abandonment of oral hygiene during intensive hospitalization constitutes an independent factor promoting a wide range of oral pathologies. In addition, stress factor indirectly impairs functioning of the immune system. Oral mucosa lesions occurring in COVID-19 cases present with a wide variation of non-characteristic features. These intraoral, soft tissues abnormalities seem to be reversible and transient. A potential impact of severe oral pathologies to systemic health resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, along with associated poor oral hygiene should not be ignored, predominantly in seriously ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units.
  • Potential therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells in COVID-19 complications
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have remarkable immunomodulatory properties, low immunogenicity, and paracrine properties as well as the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lines. These properties make them potential candidates for clinical applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and lung diseases, which may be occupational diseases. Preclinical studies using experimental animal models have demonstrated regenerative properties of MSCs in diseases such as silicosis and occupational asthma. Currently, treatment of the novel disease COVID-19 could be enhanced by using MSC therapies. This disease affects many professional groups with great intensity and its consequences might be considered as an occupational disease. It is a significant public health problem and a therapeutic challenge. Despite the development of vaccines against COVID-19, there is growing concern about the emergence of new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in addition to the known alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants. There is still no effective COVID-19 treatment and the existing ones only play a supporting role. MSCs offer treatment possibilities as an alternative or complementary therapy. The clinical trials to date using MSCs in patients with COVID-19 give hope for the safe and effective use of this stem cell population.
  • Vaccination against COVID-19 in occupational medicine
    The article discusses the issues related to exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the work environment and vaccination of workers against COVID-19. The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, identified as the etiological agent of COVID-19, prompted the declaration by the World Health Organization of a pandemic in March 2020. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets. Healthcare workers who come into contact with sick people and all those employed in direct contact with people are particularly exposed to infection. Introducing vaccinations against COVID-19 eliminates the need for quarantine, reduces the risk of disease, limits transmission of infection inside the workplace and reduces sickness absenteeism. The role of the occupational medicine service is to support preventive vaccinations against COVID-19 by providing reliable information on the safety and effectiveness of vaccinations, as well as the organization and implementation of vaccinations at workplaces.
  • Long-lasting symptoms of dyspnea, cough and fatigue after COVID-19 - a narrative review of epidemiological studies
    Long-COVID (long-lasting COVID-19) or post-COVID syndrome (PCS) is ailments associated with SARS CoV 2 infection that lasts> 4 weeks from the onset of the first symptoms. The aim of this narrative review was to answer the question of what is the scale of the 3 symptoms often manifested in long-COVID, i.e. chronic fatigue, dyspnea and cough, and whether comorbidities such as diabetes and arterial hypertension increase the risk of complications after infection. SARS CoV 2. The work uses the method of narrative review. Searched for articles on the occurrence of long-COVID-19 symptoms on the PubMed database (May 31, 2021). Studies in which the follow-up period was <30 days and the average age of the respondents exceeded 60 years of age, and those in which no information on the methodology used, and in particular on the method of recruiting participants was provided, were excluded. The values> 10%, and hypertension> 40%, were assumed as high incidence of diabetes. The mean incidence of diabetes was <10%, and hypertension <40%. Based on the above data, it can be concluded that in the period> 30 days from hospital discharge, chronic fatigue and cough occurred more frequently in populations with a high incidence of diabetes and arterial hypertension than in the other analyzed groups. The most common dyspnoea was found in populations with high diabetes prevalence and moderate arterial hypertension. Persistent symptoms characteristic of long-COVID can significantly reduce the ability to perform work. In this situation, check-ups performed before returning to work after long-term leave take on a new dimension.
  • Bundle care - pneumonia prevention in ventilated patients in the COVID-19 pandemic - a challenge for patient and staff safety
    Intensive care units are characterized by the highest risk of infection in patients. Pneumonia is one of the most common forms of pneumonia, with a high risk of death. To improve patient safety, specific packages of procedures, the so-called bundle care, including optimal solutions for the prevention of pneumonia. However, their use carries the risk of transmitting microbes from patients to staff, which in the case of pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 can have serious health consequences for staff. Therefore, when implementing them, it is necessary to use invasive protection measures and adhere to appropriate isolation rules, which in the current pandemic should be supplemented with specific elements. The paper presents an overview of articles on the optimization of patient care and staff safety within the framework of the so-called bundle care in the CO-VID-19 pandemic.
  • COVID-19 and dentistry – safety issues regarding doctor and patient situation in time of vaccine availability
    Since one of the main mode of the COVID-19 transmission is through close contact with the infected person (<1.5 m distance) and body fluids (saliva, blood, aerosol particles), the dentists have become one of the groups being at most risk of being infected. The aim of this article is to present, based on the research search (publications from the last year 2020 and from the beginning of the current year 2021), the general overview of the situation during the COVID-19 pandemic with regard to patients and dentist as well as supporting personal protection. Authors identified 7 questions related to this topic. They address among others such issues as identification of the COVID-19 patients coming to the dental practice; protection of both the dentist and the patient from infection and a need for guidelines on the scope of emergency dental services during the pandemic. Opinions on the subject, expressed by the experts in the field, including general guidelines were also taken into consideration. In general, based on the literature overview, the COVID-19 pandemic has completely transformed the healthcare system, including dentistry. The identification of the COVID-19 patients coming to the dental practice has become a necessity (including taking epidemiological survey, temperature measurement). Currently, since “the group zero” in significant part has completed the full vaccination process, the health personnel (including dentists) might feel safer. The efficacy of the vaccines is high and provides a certain sense of security.

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