Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy) 2018/10

  • Reproductive behavior in 2016-2017. Continuation of trends or change? (1-4)
    The years 2016 and 2017 are the period of a significant increase in the number of births and the fertility rate. The aim of the article is to look at the changes in the fertility pattern occurring in 2016-2017 and attempt to find their specificity. On the basis of the conducted analysis, it was found that the trends in childlessness and intensity of first births continued, and at the same time changed the procreative behaviors in the second and third births by increasing the likelihood of children issuing this order and accelerating the moment of issuing these children.
  • European Employment Office (5-10)
    One of the stages of the implementation of the European pillar of social rights is the establishment of the European Labor Office. The European Commission has made a proposal for a regulation on this matter. The overarching objective of establishing the European Labor Office is to contribute to ensuring efficient labor mobility in the EU internal market. The article discusses the reasons and goals of establishing the European Labor Office and its structure. Reference has been made to the issue of coherence with the regulations in force in this policy area and other European Union policies. Benefits were presented for EU citizens and entrepreneurs resulting from the establishment of this office.
  • Impact of minimum wages on poverty (10-18)
    The article was inspired by the author's project, whose aim was to present the issue of decent remuneration as a category of social protection in the context of economic realities. The purpose of the article was to show the existence of a possible correlation between the amount of the minimum wage and the percentage of people affected by different categories of poverty. The author analyzed the issue of the minimum wage in Polish legislation and recalled the country's economic situation since joining the European Union, and also presented the potential impact of the minimum wage on the economy. He also referred to the issue of fair remuneration set out in the European Social Charter. The analyzed data allowed to show a decline in the poverty level in practically all categories, apart from statutory poverty. The current amount of the minimum wage in Poland, however, does not meet the standards of fair remuneration.
  • Motivation for working multiples. Comparative analysis (19-24)
    The aim of the research was to check what motivates the work of "multi-workers" and whether sex differentiates the considered motives. 436 people participated in the study: 218 "multi-employees" and 218 "monopolists" with a similar gender distribution. The respondents filled out a file with a questionnaire referring to the motives of taking up employment. The results indicate that the respondents, taking up additional employment, are guided by financial and non-financial motives. Gender does not differentiate the analyzed motivation structure. Women and men emphasize that the second job allows them to settle bills and meet additional needs, but also is a source of new experiences, continuous professional development, satisfaction and diversity. The data received is important from the perspective of supporting business practice through science.
  • Local determinants of social involvement of older people (25-29)
    The social involvement of older people is an important element of healthy, active and dignified aging aimed at improving the quality of life. The aim of the article is to discuss the conditions created by the social environment to conduct recreational, educational, cultural and voluntary activities for older people. The analysis is based on a qualitative study carried out in the Małopolskie and Mazowieckie voivodships. The results show a significant organizational potential in the activity for the activation of older people, although it requires adapting the offer to specific needs related to age and health options. Stereotypes, ageism, family commitments and inadequate financing of projects are barriers to the organization of social activities of older people.
  • Distinguishing features of non-governmental organizations implementing grassroots social innovations (29-33)
    The article is devoted to the problem of implementation of bottom-up social innovations, ie innovations aimed at solving local social problems, rarely undertaken in Poland. Its purpose is to identify variables that distinguish organizations implementing these innovations from those that do not. Four such variables were distinguished on the basis of the literature review. The results of empirical research carried out in 2017 on a random sample of non-governmental organizations based in Łódź, operating on a continuous basis, are presented. Statistical analyzes were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The effect of the research is to identify one statistically significant variable in this area (it was the employment of civil lawsuits by employee organizations). The application value of derived applications was emphasized.
  • Regional differences in social policy of the Second Polish Republic (34-37)
    The great diversity of the socio-economic situation in the areas that were included in Poland created after 123 years of division, also found expression in the level of social security. This was connected with underestimating the role of social institutions in creating progress in a large part of Poland. Wanting to explain a bit more fully this problem, the author took into account the diversity of illiteracy rates in Poland in various parts of Poland. In the light of the census data from 1921, the level of illiteracy in western Poland was at the level of about 3%, while in eastern Poland it was at the level above 60%. The Polish government was aware of this limitation from the very beginning and therefore chose the way of accepting the separate development of social security in Western voivodships and gradual improvement of the situation in other parts of Poland. This possibility was created by the fact that social institutions established in the western territories before the first war were taken over by local communities. This policy worked well for the first decade, but it changed in the second decade. the reasons for the change had two reasons: economic and political. During the crisis, the situation of autonomous social institutions worsened considerably. At the same time, after 1928, the policy of centralization, which reduced the self-government of the regions, intensified. As a result, the social situation in Western Poland did not improve, and in other parts of Poland some positive symptoms could be noted.

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