Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy) 2021/01
Category: Polityka Społeczna
Published: Thursday, 15 July 2021 12:05
Written by Editor
- Artificial intelligence and labor law and relations
This study deals with the need and difficulties of legal regulation of the position of artificial intelligence in labor relations, its impact on the labor market in the near and distant future, the lack of trust and limited awareness of contemporary and future employees, about its potential and its positive and negative possibilities. The ideal that "learned machines" can be considered in our society is still a long way off. We will have to wait for the integration of intelligent robots with employees. At present, one can only consider whether artificial intelligence can help or harm people in employment relationships. Artificial intelligence taking over millions of jobs will not take people away from all the work that exists in the labor markets and is currently performed by people. In contrast, it can compete effectively with the types of routine work performed by humans. It will create new, more favorable employment conditions. It will force people of the working age to prepare for the necessary necessity of permanent vocational training.
- Identification of minimum knowledge about social security
The Polish social security system is part of the social security system. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland imposes an obligation on the state to create such a system and provide guarantees of social security for every citizen. Participation in the social insurance system, and thus the insurance coverage in terms of the effects of social risks, is strictly dependent on the fact of performing gainful activity on the terms specified in the Act on the social insurance system (including: work performed under an employment contract or under a civil law contract). and running a business). On the one hand, the legality of employment and integrity of the employer, and on the other hand, the effectiveness of the control bodies of state institutions are the two pillars of the insurance guarantee. The responsibility for ensuring such insurance protection lies between the institutional activities of the state and the individual attitude of the citizen. It is his knowledge of social security that plays a very important role as an attribute of risk awareness. The Act on the social insurance system obliges the Polish executive institution (the Social Insurance Institution) to popularize this knowledge. The aim of the article is an attempt to indicate the scope of the minimum knowledge about social security, which will allow the citizen to consciously participate in the system, i.e. to effectively protect himself against the effects of possible risk.
- Impact of the level of education on employees' income
The article presents the impact of the level of education of employees on their income in various approaches. One of them is a study based on the OECD data from 2004–2005, which shows the differentiation of incomes of employees with different levels of education on the basis of the relative differentiation between them, assuming the income level of employees with upper secondary education to be 100 and relating to it respectively the level of income of employees with education higher education and the level of income of employees with lower secondary education. Then, the study presents a more elaborate study of the impact of the level of education of employees on their incomes in the European Union, included in the Report "The European Higher Education Area in 2015". This survey shows the impact of the level of education of employees on the median of their gross annual income in the European Union and in individual Member States. The article also compares the income differentiation depending on the level of education, based on the OECD data for 2004–2005, with the results of the surveys on the European Union Member States from 2010 and 2013. These comparisons indicate the existence, to some extent, of opposite trends.
- Subsistence minimum in the second and third quarter of 2020
The article presents the estimates of the subsistence minimum in the second and third quarter of 2020, i.e. during the sanitary restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. They influenced changes in the lives of households in various respects. The estimates take into account the scope and manner of meeting the needs in typical conditions. New circumstances such as COVID-19 were not taken into account, in the absence of extensive research on changes in household consumption in 2020. If there is a need to change some of the current assumptions, the subsistence minimum value for this period can be recalculated. The value of the subsistence minimum in Q2 increased by + 2.1% for a single-person household and by 1.8% for a four-person household, with inflation by 0.3%. The increase in the subsistence level was mainly due to a further increase in food prices (from 4.3 to 4.5%), with the growing costs of maintaining a flat and energy carriers from 1.7 to 2.0%. The same factor influenced the decline in the minimum value in the third quarter. During this period, the subsistence minimum estimates decreased by -1% for a 1-person farm and by -1.1% for a 4-person farm, with a slight increase in prices (+ 0.1%). Seasonal drops in food prices caused the value of food in the basket to drop from -6.1% to -6.4%, with the CPI index being -2.3% in this group of expenses. This time, the expenditure on housing maintenance and energy carriers did not exceed 0.5%.
- Book review: Labor market policy in the social market economy of Germany
In the presented monograph, three main problem areas can be distinguished. Theoretical considerations focus on the German model of the Social Market Economy. Much space has been devoted to the role of labor market policy in this model. Subsequently, the transformation of the East German economy, the employment consequences of the adopted strategy of high wages and investment promotion were critically assessed, and attention was drawn to the labor market policy offensive in the eastern part of Germany. The third level of problems includes issues related to the transition from active to activating labor market policy, the implementation of Hartz reforms and their socio-economic consequences.
Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy) - the whole list