Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy) 2019/04
- Category: Polityka Społeczna
- Published: Wednesday, 22 May 2019 16:26
- Written by Editor
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- Income from redistribution. Division and addressing criteria. Introductory article (2-8)
The article is a synthetic review of the criteria used in granting cash social benefits, i.e. income derived from redistribution. Its purpose is to extract the essential features of approaches used in social policy both historically and comparably, focusing on modern times. It is concluded with a reflection on the costs and benefits of the unconditional basic income - BDP, which is now one of the significant and controversial topics not only of the reform of the welfare state, but also of political debate.
- Minimum income in the European pillar of social rights and practice in member countries (9-14)
The article is devoted to the place and role of minimum income in the European pillar of social rights (EFPS) and solutions currently used by member countries. The first part presents the concept of minimum income in EFPS. The current approach is discussed in relation to earlier regulations and in combination with the idea of a universal (unconditional) basic income. The second part focuses on the prospects of implementing the right to a minimum income and discusses the pro- posed mechanisms for implementing this right. The third one presents solutions currently used by member states, mainly in the area of social welfare, paying attention to those features of the described systems, which are the most important when introducing a minimum income in a guarantee and will be the subject of constant monirenovation. Analysis of total expenditure, coverage and level of benefits as well as their effectiveness in combating poverty indicates the diversity in this area.
- Universal basic income: timely discussion for Europe? (pp. 15-18)
Because the world of work is changing because of new technologies, digitization and globalization in the labor market, some policy makers are forced to take on board the concept of hitherto only slightly touched and rethinking social security systems and welfare states as we know them. The idea of universal guaranteed income (UBI), driven by potential threats of globalization, increased automation and the digital revolution, timidly finds its way into the European debate. The article explains the discussions on UBI that have recently been made in the institutions of the European Union and outlines comparative opinions on the initiatives related to UBI. The ways in which the EU takes a position on the UBI are considered, bearing in mind that the European Commission can not propose legal solutions with respect to universal guaranteed income.
- Unconditional basic income and the concept of social security William Beveridge in the light of the debate "Beverdige rebooted: basic income for every citizen? "(Pp. 18-22)
The answer to the question if Beveridge's report was written today, would recommend unconditional basic income (BDP) was not obvious during the debate at the London School of Economics. A supporter of the BDP idea, Philippe Van Parijs, presented this concept as a response to the five giants of evil formulated by Beveridge. The way we experience these problems today differs from the experiences of people living in the 1940s. Poor working people are the biggest beneficiaries of this solution, because BDP gives them the chance to be idle in the sense of not accepting bad working conditions, and looking for a job that is more meaningful to them. There is no money tree in the Matrix, and the numbers speak for themselves - emphasized John Kay, standing in opposition to the concept discussed. In order to have an unconditional basic income at an alternative level to employment in the UK, taxes would have to be raised by half.
- The concept of universal guaranteed income - a look from the French perspective (23-29)
The article is a description of the situation and evolution of social policy in France in the context of the concept of universal guaranteed income. The idea itself, its history and development as part of the insurance model of French social security are discussed. The redistributive effects of various variants of reforms introducing guaranteed income in France are analyzed using microsimulation methods. The final discussion of economists and sociologists poses the problem of the possible consequences of introducing guaranteed income, and in particular the real threat of a permanent division of society into those participating and excluded from the labor market.
- Discourse on a universal basic income - opinions in Norway (30-36)
The concept of a universal basic income, as a new form of using all citizens from the generated value of a domestic product, is the subject of discussion in many countries. The reasons can be found in the uncertainty and instability in the labor market, mainly related to the progressive automation and digitalization. The article presents the basics of the UBI idea and discourse around this concept mainly in Norway, which is a country with an efficient welfare state and broad social support for the functioning socio-economic model. The article presents the positions of various social circles in the debate on this subject. In addition, a slightly different concept of basic income is described - the guaranteed percentage share of citizens (UBS) in the gross national product (GNP) produced and the calculation of its amount for Norway and India. In Norway there are not many UBI supporters, because well-paid work is a superior value here.
- Universal basic income in the optics of the concept of temporary labor markets. a poem about the principles and pragmatics (37-42)
The aim of the article is to assess the concept of universal basic income (UBI) in the light of the assumptions of the Transitional Labor Market (TLM) concept. The text identifies the convergent areas of both ideas, as well as the fields in which the most important differences between them in the axiological and pragmatic dimensions are identified. The main goals and assumptions of the UBI idea were also critically analyzed. The reasoning and argumentation was aimed at verifying the hypothesis that the concept of temporary labor markets in the conditions of the modern labor market in Poland (characterized by low unemployment and the level of professional activity) is an approach that better protects against poverty and social exclusion than the solutions proposed UBI, by building long-term resistance of people of working age to shocks, increasing the employability of labor resources, supporting the flexibility of people in the labor market and counteracting the depreciation of their human capital. The conducted polemic focuses on economic arguments regarding the goals, costs and consequences for the UBI and TLM implementation market.
- The role of minimum consumption thresholds in social policy in Poland (43-48)
The article in the first part presents four indicators developed by the basket method, which play various functions in Polish social policy. The oldest of these is the social minimum (published regularly since 1981, before transformation) and minimum subsistence (since 1994). In 2001-2002, two new thresholds were defined for determining the profitable limits for granting social assistance benefits (social intervention threshold) and family benefits (income support for families). The second part of the article presents the territorial diversity of both the thresholds (social minimum and subsistence level) and GUS estimates over the regional differentiation of selected rates of poverty. There are also presented synthetic indicators of poverty, to which some local government authorities reach, to observe the phenomenon of poverty at a lower level than the voivodship.