- Thallium in color tattoo inks: risk associated with tattooing
Thallium was identified and determined in all tested samples. Its content depends on the country of origin but it does not depend directly on the color. The lowest content of Tl was found in the pink ink and the highest in the violet ink (from Israel), and a similar content was also found in the yellow ink (from Israel). The use of colored inks in larger quantities (a dense pattern and a larger surface area covered) may potentially pose a health risk. The danger of Tl poisoning from tattooing depends on the type of the ink (color) and its origin. As Tl is not considered a micronutrient, introducing such a Tl content into the body may be associated with a potentially harmful accumulation of this metal in body organs, causing various types of ailments and toxic effects primarily on the nervous, skeletal and circulatory systems. The obtained results suggest that tattooists may be exposed to the toxic effects of Tl in tattoo inks. The analytical data presented in the paper may constitute the basis for determining the acceptable limits of toxic Tl contents in tattoo inks.
- Nurses’ turnover intention a comparative study between Iran and Poland
The results showed that the predicted factors of nurses’ turnover intention in Poland and Iran were different. Workplace support and job satisfaction can reduce turnover intention among Polish nurses while the work–family conflict influences nurses’ turnover intention in Iran. Providing a flexible work plan in Iranian hospitals and enhancing teamwork and improving the spirit of cooperation in Polish hospitals could reduce nurses’ turnover intention in these 2 countries.
- The role of intelligence and temperamental traits in predicting reaction times in movement anticipation tasks: a preliminary study using the PAMT Test2Drive computer test
This study expands the current literature by assessing the relationship between fluid intelligence, temperamental traits and reaction times in movement anticipation tasks with objects moving at different speeds. The outcomes of this study are discussed together with those of previous research.
- Resources and activities of occupational health service units in Poland: analysis of the obligatory reporting for 2014–2018
The territorial availability of preventive examinations performed by SMP doctors should be monitored for all employers obliged to provide them and for all employees who are obliged to undergo such examinations. The subject scope of obligatory official statistics concerning the certification activity of occupational medicine requires updating. Due to the high stability of the types of decisions issued, it should have a limited scope of detail.
- Two types of flexibility - in coping and cognitive - and their relationship with perceived stress among firefighters
Consideration should be given to considering the need to support subjective resources, such as flexibility in coping with stress and cognitive flexibility, in prevention programs for firefighters. The results also indicate the need for in-depth research to better understand both constructs.
- Selected personality traits of nurses and flexibility in coping with stress - moderating role of age and seniority
The propensity to risk correlated statistically significantly with flexibility in coping with stress and all its dimensions (strategy repertoire, strategy variability and reflectivity) at a low level. There were no similar relationships for empathy and impulsiveness. In the predictive assessment of the role of selected personality traits for flexibility in coping with stress, only the propensity to risk was a significant predictor. Although the model turned out to be statistically significant, it allowed to explain the variability of elasticity only in 7%. There was a low, statistically significant correlation between the risk appetite of nurses and their flexibility in coping with stress. Empathy and impulsiveness did not play a predictive role.
- Occupational health of midwives
The midwifery profession varies greatly from one country to another. There are, however, a number of common features such as exposure to biological risks through contact with pregnant women and women in labor, exposure to postural stresses during examinations and medical acts, but also, increasingly, exposure to organizational constraints (work schedules, shift work, etc.). This article aims to give an overview of what is known about the occupational health risks of midwives (MWs). A review of the literature on Medline, from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2017, was carried out. Articles focused principally on burnout (BO) and post-traumatic stress disorder. Several BO questionnaires were used. For the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the prevalence of personal BO ranged 20–57%; the percentage of work-related BO fell between 15–57%; and the prevalence of client-related BO ranged 5–15%. For the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the prevalence of emotional exhaustion varied between 23–60.7%; the prevalence of depersonalization ranged 3.3–30.3%; and the pervasiveness of personal accomplishment varied between 5–30.3%. There was little data concerning musculoskeletal problems or accidental exposure to biological fluids. The literature review on occupational pathologies demonstrates high levels of BO. Several gaps exist on the evolution of the impact of their work on the health of MWs, like the effect of shift work, postural stresses, etc. This review will make it possible to better focus future research on the occupational health of this population.
- A review of prospective studies on the mental health and quality of life of doctors and medical students
Psychosocial determinants play an important role in shaping the mental health and quality of life of employees, including doctors. In this review of the literature, it was shown that the mental health problems of physicians are manifested in the form of chronic fatigue syndrome and occupational burnout and are related to chronic exposure to stress at work. Moreover, published data indicate that the most important mental health problems of medical students and young doctors include: alcohol addiction and the risky way of its consumption, depression, and potential suicidal behavior. The studies discussed in the paper, aimed at identifying the mental health and quality of life of doctors and their determinants, were conducted mainly on the basis of prospective observations, allowing for tracking changes over time.
- Prophylactic examinations of hearing in workers exposed to noise and organic solvents
Due to the ototoxic properties of organic solvents demonstrated in Directive 2003/10 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union, it was recommended to take into account the interaction of the effects of noise and solvents on the hearing organ when assessing the risk of occupational damage to hearing. Taking into account the lack of so far specified preventive recommendations, this study aims to provide the physician with guidelines for conducting hearing tests in employees exposed to these risks. This paper discusses the biological effects of noise and organic solvents on the hearing organ and the current possibilities of estimating the risk of hearing damage in the case of isolated exposure to solvents and their interaction with noise. The scope of the medical examination and the importance of individual hearing tests are presented, including tonal audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, impedance audiometry, auditory brainstem potential, silent speech audiometry, speech-in-noise audiometry, and a dichotic digital test in the diagnosis of damage caused by organic solvents. An algorithm for conducting hearing tests was developed in the case of exposure to organic solvents as well as noise and solvents depending on the exposure level. The necessity of annual audiometric tests in all employees exposed to organic solvents in the case of exceeding their concentrations in the air, safe for the hearing organ, regardless of the coexistence of exposure to noise, was indicated. In people exposed to noise and organic solvents, periodic tonal audiometry should be obligatorily performed when the lower operating threshold for noise specified in Directive 2003/10 / EC is exceeded, ie LEX, 8h = 80 dB. Taking into account the damaging effects of organic solvents on the central part of the hearing organ, in addition to tonal audiometry, it is recommended to test speech audiometry (optimally speech-in-noise audiometry). The introduction of preventive hearing tests in workers exposed to organic solvents and the extension of the indications and scope of hearing tests in people exposed jointly to noise and solvents is a prerequisite for effective prevention of hearing damage in these professional groups.
Medycyna Pracy (Occupational Medicine) - full list